Personality traits and social entrepreneurship dimensions in Peru and Argentina


María Angela Prialé Valle Rosa María Fuchs Manuel Sáenz Joyce K.H. Nga Adrián Darmohraj Mauro Moschetti


This research aims to increase the comprehension of the influence of the Big 5 Personality Traits on social entrepreneurship dimensions (social vision, sustainability, social network, innovation and financial returns) in the context of Argentinian and Peruvian social enterprises. Previous research was often based on student samples and most of them do not integrate the Latin American landscape. This paper presents a unique sample of entrepreneurs operating in countries where social entrepreneurship has not been deeply investigated, but considered as potentially relevant to bridge the division between the State and the free market in providing sustainable resources for the social sector growth. Data from 109 Peruvian and Argentinian social entrepreneurs was collected via online questionnaires, and analyzed using a separate exploratory factor analysis for the dependent and independent constructs. Findings indicate Conscientiousness as the most influential personality trait in social entrepreneur’s dimensions, affecting all except for financial returns. Openness has significantly positive influence to social network and innovation, as Extroversion to social network and financial returns, with a significantly negative influence to sustainability. Finally, Neuroticism has significantly negative influence to social networks. Additionally, differences between Peruvian and Argentinian samples were found and could stem from cultural-economic context.

Palabras clave

Social business, Social enterprise, Personality traits, Social entrepreneurship, Entrepreneurial intention.



Abraham, R. (2004). Emotional competence as antecedent to performance: A contingency framework. Genetic, Social, and General Psychology Monographs, 130(2): 117-143.

Abramovay, R., Correa, M.E., Gatica, S. and Van Hoof, B. (2013). Nuevas empresas, nuevas economías: Empresas B en Sur América. New York: FOMIN, Banco Interamericano de desarrollo.

Aldrich, H., & Zimmer, C. (1986). Entrepreneurship through social networks. In C. Zimmer (Ed.), Entrepreneurship through social networks. The art and science of entrepreneurship (pp. 3-23). Cambridge: Ballinger.

Alter, K. (2003). Social enterprise: A typology of the field contextualized in Latin America. Washington D.C.: Inter-American Development Bank.

Amorós, J., & Bosma, N. (2014). Global Entrepreneurship Monitor, 2013 Global Report. Retrieved from (accessed 29 September 2017).

Austin, J., Stevenson, H., & Wei-Skillern, J. (2006). Social and Commercial Entrepreneurship: Same, Different, or Both? Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 30(1): 1-22.

Banco Mundial. (2016). Perú panorama general. Banco Mundial. Retrieved from (accessed 29 September 2017).

Bansal, T., & DesJardin, M. (2014). Don’t Confuse Sustainability with Corporate Social Responsibility. Retrieved from (accessed 28 January 2016).

Baracat, E., Finger, J. M., Thorne, R. L., & Nogués, J. (2015). Trade Reform and Institution Building: Peru and Argentina under the WTO. World Trade Review, 14(4): 579-615.

Barendsen, L., & Gardner, H. (2004). Is the social entrepreneur a new type of leader? Leader to Leader, 34: 43-50.

Basualdo, E. (2008). La distribución del ingreso en la Argentina y sus condicionantes estructurales. In Centro de Estudios Legales y Sociales - CELS (Ed.). Derechos Humanos en Argentina (pp. 1-14). Buenos Aires: Siglo XXI Editores.

Bikse, V., Rivza, V., & Riemere, I. (2015). The Social Entrepreneur as a Promoter of Social Advancement. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 185(13): 469-478.

Braga, J., Proença, T., & Ferreira, M. (2014). Motivations for social entrepreneurship - Evidences from Portugal. Tékhne Review of Applied Management Studies, 12(1): 11-21.

Brandstätter, H. (2011). Personality aspects of entrepreneurship: A look at five meta-analyses. Journal of Personality and Individual Differences, 51(3): 222-230.

Caballero, S., Fuchs R.M, Prialé, M.A, & Nga, K.H. (2014). The influence of the Big 5 personality traits on the social enterprise start-up intentions: A Peruvian case. Taylor´s Business Review, 4(1): 87-107.

Cartwright, W., & Craig, J. (2006). Sustainability: Aligning Corporate Governance, Strategy and Operations with the Planet. Business Process Management Journal, 12(6): 741-750.

Centro de Estudios Sociales y Económicos. (2017). La Economía Argentina. Retrieved from (accesed 29 September 2017).

Cetrángolo, O., Gómez, J., & Morán, D. (2015). Argentina: reformas fiscales, crecimiento e inversión (2000-2014). Santiago de Chile: CEPAL.

Ciavarella, M., Buchholtz, A., Riordan C., Gatewood, R., & Stokes, G. (2004). The Big Five and venture survival: Is there linkage?. Journal of Business Venturing, 19(4): 465-483.

Cross, B., & Travaglione, A. (2003). The untold story: Is entrepreneurship of the 21st century defined by emotional intelligence?. The International Journal of Organizational Studies, 11(3): 221-228.

Darabi, M., Soltani, H., Nazari, K., & Emami, M. (2012). Social entrepreneurship: A critical review of the concept. Journal of Applied Sciences Research, 8(6): 2932-2940.

Dees, G. (1998). The meaning of social entrepreneurship. Retrieved from (accessed 9 December 2015).

DeNisi, A.S. (2015). Some further thoughts on entrepreneurial personality. Entrepreneurship Training and Practice, 39(5): 997-1003.

Elkington, J. (1994). Towards the Sustainable Corporation: Win-Win-Win Business Strategies for Sustainable Development. California Management Review, 36(2): 90-100.

Espíritu-Olmos, R., & Sastre-Castillo, M.A. (2015). Personality traits versus work values: Comparing psychological theories on entrepreneurial intention. Journal of Business Research, 68(7): 1595-1598.

Farber, V., Caballero, S., Prialé, M. A., & Fuchs, R. M. (2015). Social Enterprises in Lima: Notions and Operating Models. Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation in Emerging Economies, 1(1): 56-78.

Farruggia, G. (2007). How is the non-profit sector changing? Futures Research Quarterly, 23(1): 5-16.

Gaggero, A., Gaggero, J., & Rúa, M. (2015). Principales características e impacto macroeconómico de la fuga de capitales en Argentina. Problemas del Desarrollo, 46(182): 67-90.

Gawall, M. (2013). Social entrepreneurship - innovative challengers or just followers?”. Social Enterprise Journal, 9(2): 203-320.

Gintis, C. (1990). Why Schumpeter got it Wrong in Capitalism, Socialism, and Democracy. Retrieved from (accessed 13 January 2016).

Goleman, D. (1998). Working with emotional intelligence. London: Bloomsbury Publishing.

Greve, A., & Salaff, J.W. (2003). Social networks and entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 28(1): 1-22.

Gungaphul, M., & Boolaky, M. (2009). Entrepreneurship and marketing: an exploratory study in Mauritius. Journal of Chinese Entrepreneurship, 1(3): 209-226.

Guy, M.E., & Hitcock, J.R. (2000). If apples were oranges: the public/nonprofit, business nexus of Peter Drucker”s work. Journal of Management History, 6(1): 30-47.

Hair, J.F., Black, W.C., Babin, B.J., & Anderson, R.E. (2010), Multivariate data analysis: A global perspective, 7th ed. New Jersey: Pearson.

Handy, F., Ranade, B., & Kassam, M. (2007). To profit or not to profit: Women entrepreneurs in India. Nonprofit Management and Leadership, 17(4): 383-401.

Hemingway, C. (2005). Personal Values as a Catalyst for Corporate Social Entrepreneurship. Journal of Business Ethics, 60(3): 233-249.

INEI- Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática. (2016). Condiciones de vida en el Perú Noviembre - Diciembre 2016. Retrieved from (accessed 17 February 2017).

International Monetary Fund. (2017), World Economic Outlook, April 2017. Gaining Momentum? Washington D.C.: International Monetary Fund.

İrengϋn, O., & Arikboğa, Ş. (2015). The effect personality traits on social entrepreneurship intentions: A field research. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 195: 1186-1195.

Kirkwood, J. (2007). Igniting the entrepreneurial spirit: Is the role parents play gendered?. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour and Research, 13(1): 39-59.

Klaren, P. (2004). Nación y Sociedad en la Historia del Perú. Lima: Instituto de Estudios Peruanos.

Kneiding, C., & Tracey, P. (2009). Towards a performance measurement framework for community development finance institutions in the UK. Journal of Business Ethics, 86(3): 327-345.

Leutner, F., Ahmetoglu, G., Akhtar, R., & Chamorro-Premuzic, T. (2014). The relationship between the entrepreneurial personality and the Big Five personality traits. Personality and Individual Differences, 63: 58-63.

Lin, N. (1999). Building a network theory of social capital. Connections, 22(1): 28-51.

Llewelyn, D.J., & Wilson, K.M. (2003). The controversial role of personality traits in entrepreneurial psychology. Education + Training, 45(6): 341-345.

Mair, J., & Martí, I. (2006). Social entrepreneurship research: a source of explanation, prediction, and delight. Journal of World Business, 41(1): 36-44.

Mair, J., & Noboa, E. (2006). Social entrepreneurship: How intentions to create a social venture are formed. In Mair, J., Robinson, J., & Hockerts, K. (Eds.). Social Entrepreneurship (pp. 121-135). Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Márquez, P., Reficco, E., & Berger, G. (2010). Negocios inclusivos: Iniciativas de mercado con los pobres de Iberoamérica. Washington D.C.: Inter American Development Bank.

Martin, R., & Osberg, S. (2007). Social Entrepreneurship: The Case for Definition. Retrieved from (accessed 18 August 2015).

McClelland, D.C. (1961). The achieving society. New Jersey: Princeton.

McCrae, R.R., & John, O.P. (1992). An Introduction to the Five-Factor Model and Its Applications. Journal of Personality, 60(2): 175-215.

MECON - Ministerio de Economía de la Nación (2016). Secretaría de Hacienda. Retrieved from (accessed 15 February 2017).

Mehrotra, S., & Verma, S. (2015). An assessment approach for enhancing the organizational performance of social enterprises in India. Journal of Entrepreneurship in Emerging Economies, 7(1): 35-54.

Nahapiet, J., & Ghoshal, S. (1998). Social capital, intellectual capital and organizational advantage. The Academy of Management Review, 23(2): 242-266.

Nga, K.H., & Shamuganathan, G. (2010). The Influence of Personality Traits and Demographic Factors on Social Entrepreneurship Start Up Intentions. Journal of Business Ethics, 95(2): 259-282.

Ong, W.J., & Ismail, H.B. (2008). Revisiting Personality Traits in Entrepreneurship Study from Resource-Based Perspective. Business Renaissance Quarterly, 3(1): 97-114.

Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development. (2010). SMEs, Entrepreneurship and Innovation. Paris: OECD Publishing.

Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development. (2013). Policy Brief on Social Entrepreneurship: Entrepreneurial Activities in Europe. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union.

Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development. (2017). OECD Economic Surveys: Argentina 2017: Multi-dimensional Economic Survey. Paris: OECD Publishing.

Ovais, M., & Li, C. (2016). Personality Traits and their Effects on Social Entrepreneurship Intention. The International Journal of Business & Management, 4(4): 222-226.

Peredo, A.M., & McLean, M. (2006). Social entrepreneurship: A critical review of the concept. Journal of World Business, 41(1): 56-65.

Pless, N. (2012). Social Entrepreneurship in Theory and Practice-An Introduction. Journal of Business Ethics, 111(3): 317-320.

Prahalad, C.K. (2006). The fortune at the bottom of the pyramid: Eradicating poverty through profits. New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall.

Saeed, R., Nayyab, H., Rashied, H., Lodhi, R.N., Musawar, S., & Iqbal, A. (2013). Who Is the Most Potential Entrepreneur? A Case of Pakistan. Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research, 17(9): 1307-1315.

Savitz, A., & Weber, K. (2006). The Triple Bottom Line: How today’s Best-Run Companies Are Achieving Economic, Social, and Environmental Success. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Schaefer, B.P. (2008). Shareholders and social responsibility. Journal of Business Ethics, 81(2): 297-312.

Schmit, M. J., Kihm, J. A., & Robie, C. (2000). Development of a Global Measure of Personality. Personnel Psychology, 53: 153-193.

Schmitt-Rodermund, E. (2004). Pathways to successful entrepreneurship: Parenting, personality, early entrepreneurial competence and interests. Journal of Vocational Behaviour, 65(3): 498-518.

Schumpeter, J. (1942). The process of creative destruction. In Schumpeter, J. (Eds.). Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy. London: Allen and Unwin.

Schumpeter, J. (1934). The Theory of Economic Development. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Sesen, H. (2013). Personality and environment?: A comprehensive study on entrepreneurial intentions of university students. Education + Training, 55(7): 624-640.

Shane, S., & Venkataraman, S. (2000). The Promise of Entrepreneurship as a Field of Research. The Academy of Management Review, 25(1): 217-226.

Singer, S., Amorós, J., & Moska, D. (2015). Global Entrepreneurship Monitor. 2014 Global Report. Retrieved from (accessed 29 September 2017).

Smith, R., Bell, R., & Watts, H. (2013). Personality trait differences between traditional and social entrepreneurs. Social Enterprise Journal, 10(3): 200-221.

Spitzeck, H., Boechat, C., & Leāo, S.L. (2013). Sustainability as a driver for innovation-towards a model of corporate social entrepreneurship at Odebrecht in Brazil. Corporate Governance, 13(5): 613-625.

Vera, A., Prialé, M. A., Fusch, R. M., Espinoza, A., Seminario, M., & Ninahuanca, E. F. (2016). Hacia una comprensión del ecosistema emprendedor social peruano: Contexto y características del emprendimiento social en Lima. Ciências Sociais Unisinos, 52(3): 343-353.

Wang, K.Y., Li-Hua R., & Xu, E. (2009). Acquisition of tacit marketing knowledge. A role of human capital and social capital of entrepreneurs in China. Journal of Chinese Entrepreneurship, 1(2): 103-120.

Weerawardena, J., & Mort, S.G. (2006). Investigating social entrepreneurship: A multidimensional model. Journal of World Business, 41(1): 21-35.

Wood, S. (2012). Prone to progress: Using personality to identify supporters of innovative social entrepreneurship. American Marketing Association, 31(1): 129-141.

Yong, L. (2007). Emotional excellence in the workplace: Leonard Personality Inventory (LPI), Personality Profiling. Kuala Lumpur: Leonard Personality Incorporated.

Yunus, M. (2007). Creating a world without poverty. Social business and the future of capitalism. New York: Public Affairs.

Yunus, M., & Weber, K. (2010). Building social business: The new kind of capitalism that serves humanity´ s most pressing needs. New York: Public Affairs.

Yunus, M., Moingeon, B., & Lehmann-Ortega, L. (2010). Building social business models: Lessons from the Grameen experience. Long Range Planning, 43(2-3): 308-325.

Zahra, S., Gedajlovic, E., Neubaum, D., & Shulman, J. (2009). A typology of social entrepreneurs: Motives, search processes and ethical challenges. Journal of Business Venturing, 24(5): 519-532.

Zhao, H., Seibert, S., & Lumpkin, G.T. (2010). The Relationship of Personality to Entrepreneurial Intentions and Performance: A Meta-Analytic Review. Journal of Management, 36(2): 381-404.